Low-sodium salt, non-iodized salt, iodized salt, sea salt, well salt…what is the difference between various kinds of salt?

Salt is an indispensable condiment in our daily life, but there are many kinds of salt on the market, such as low-sodium salt, non-iodized salt, rose salt, deep well salt, seaweed salt, snowflake salt, etc. What’s the difference? Which salt is better for you?

By composition: Table salt is divided into three main categories, each with taboo

In fact, if you divide it according to the main composition of table salt, it can be divided into three categories: low-sodium salt, iodized salt, and non-iodized salt.

  1. Low sodium salt-patients with kidney disease cannot eat

We all know that eating too much salt will increase the risk of high blood pressure, but in fact, the real killer of high blood pressure is not salt, but sodium.

Yu Luyang, director of the Shenhe District Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Liaoning Province, pointed out in an article in the Health Times in 2016 that human blood vessels are permeable, and sodium is like a sponge. If sodium is ingested too much, water will be absorbed into it and cause water and sodium retention. , Increase blood volume and increase pressure on blood vessels. If this is the case for a long time, the pressure on blood vessels will increase, leading to high blood pressure.

Therefore, low sodium salt has become the choice of many people. Director Yu Luyang explained that low-sodium salt is a nutrient salt. Compared with ordinary salt, the content of sodium chloride is reduced by about 30%. The sodium chloride content of traditional salt is more than 95%, while 30% potassium chloride is added to the low-sodium salt, which reduces the sodium chloride content to about 70%. While hardly affecting the perception of saltiness, it reduces sodium intake and effectively increases potassium intake.

Potassium can just play a role in restricting sodium. When the sodium content in food is high, potassium cannot play a regulatory role. However, if the intake of potassium in food is increased, it can promote sodium excretion and reduce water and sodium retention. . Low-sodium salt just plays this role. ①

Therefore, in the usual diet, you can replace ordinary salt with low-sodium salt.

However, it should be noted that it is not to say that you can eat as much as you want with low sodium salt, but to control the total salt intake according to the standard. In addition, not everyone is suitable for low sodium salt.

Qin Jianguo, chief physician of the Department of Nephrology, Dongfang Hospital, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, pointed out in an interview with a Health Times reporter in 2017 that low-sodium salt contains more potassium. Kidney patients, especially those with urinary dysfunction (such as uremia), Do not eat low-sodium salt. More potassium cannot be effectively excreted from the body. Accumulation in the body will cause hyperkalemia, which is likely to cause arrhythmia and heart failure. ②

  1. Iodized salt-recommended for iodine-deficient areas

Most of the salt we eat in our daily life is iodized salt. The reason why iodine is added to table salt is because our country used to be a country with severe iodine deficiency diseases. Since 1996, our country has implemented universal salt iodization.

After the former Ministry of Health revised the “Standards for the Use of Food Nutrients” in 2012, the addition of nutrient fortifiers other than iodine is no longer allowed in table salt. The iodine content of table salt can be selected from 20mg/kg, 25mg/kg, and 30mg/kg. Iodine level.

However, as to whether it is necessary to continue to consume iodized salt, there have been various opinions on the Internet. Some people think that my country does not need to consume iodized salt after iodine supplementation for so many years. Others say that coastal areas eat more seafood and rely on food to supplement iodine Yes; there are also views that the consequences of iodine deficiency are serious and iodine supplementation should be continued.

Ding Xia, deputy chief physician of the Nutrition Department of Nantong University Hospital, pointed out in an article in the Health Times in 2019 that the iodine content of common foods is: fresh kelp 114μg/100g, dried seaweed 4323μg/100g, shrimp skin 265μg/100g, mussels 346μg/100g, Shrimp 82μg/100g. Therefore, if you want to use foods with higher iodine content alone to meet the average adult iodine requirement of 120μg/d, you need to eat 105g fresh kelp or 3g dried seaweed or 45g shrimp skin every day. According to China’s “Iodine Content in Edible Salt” standard, if the fortified iodine level of salt is 25mg/kg and 5g of salt is consumed per day, the cooking loss is calculated as 20%. The daily intake of iodine from iodized salt is 100μg, plus drinking water And the iodine in food can reach the iodine demand of the general population. ③

So if you live in a coastal city and usually consume more seafood, you don’t need to choose iodized salt. However, if the intake of seafood is insufficient, or in areas with iodine deficiency, iodized salt is recommended.

  1. No iodized salt-not recommended for two types of people

But not everyone is suitable for iodized salt.

In 2017, Song Xiangyang, director of the Thyroid and Breast Surgery Department of Zhejiang Provincial People’s Hospital, pointed out in an interview with the media that there are two types of people who are not suitable for consuming iodized salt. One is patients with thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism, thyroiditis, and autoimmune thyroid diseases. If you need to follow the doctor’s advice for treatment, you can avoid or consume less iodized salt. The other category is residents living in high-iodine areas or non-iodine-deficient areas. They have received enough iodine from food and drinking water every day. This part of the population also Iodized salt should not be consumed. ④

According to the process: the production process is slightly different, and the quantity control is the most important

In addition to the above three categories, other types of salt are derived from these three categories based on different production processes and different mining areas.

For example, the biggest difference between well salt, lake salt, sea salt, and rock salt is that the source of salt is different. Well salt refers to the salt made by drilling wells to extract underground brine (naturally formed or after water injection from salt mines); sea salt refers to the evaporation and crystallization of seawater. The salt; lake salt is the salt directly extracted from the salt lake, and the salt made by the salt lake brine as the raw material in the salt pan; the sea salt produced after the sea is dried in the sun, after hundreds of millions of years of geological extrusion and underground high temperature The “salt fossil” formed by the action is called rock salt; the pale pink rose salt is also a kind of rock salt, which appears pink because of its trace of iron. ⑤

“Seaweed salt” uses natural organic iodine extracted from kelp to replace potassium iodate in ordinary iodized salt; “snowflake salt” is formed by dissolving the raw material salt for the second time to form crystals resembling snowflakes, with a lower melting point. “Bamboo salt” is to put table salt into a bamboo tube, seal the two ends with loess, and then use pine branches as fuel. After high temperature calcination at 1000℃~1300℃, the final solid powder obtained is bamboo salt. After refining, the minerals in the bamboo tube and loess will enter the table salt. It can be said that bamboo salt is processed “coarse salt”. ⑤

Finally, Ding Xia, deputy chief physician of the Department of Nutrition of the Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, suggested that with so many kinds of salt, we only need to choose ordinary iodized salt, low-sodium salt, and non-iodized salt according to our own physical conditions in our daily life. Differentiate other salt to choose, but it should be noted that no matter what salt you eat, you must control the amount. This is the most important thing. ③

Reference materials:

① 2016-09-30 Health Times “Nutrition experts love to use low sodium salt”

② 2017-10-09 Health Times “Hypertension hurts the kidney quietly! Did you eat low sodium salt right? Q&A live broadcast by TCM experts

③ 2019-03-12 Health Times “Should I eat iodized salt?

④ 2017-01-17 Health Times “Iodized Salt, Should I Eat It?

⑤ 2018-11-06 Health Times “Salt selection does not have to be so many tricks”

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